Hayward, Richard (1728-1800)
Hayward was born in Warwickshire. In 1753 he spent a year in Rome and was a friend of Thomas Jenkins who supplied Charles Townley with part of his sculpture collection. It may have been through Jenkins that Charles Townley employed Hayward. Hayward made chimney pieces for Woburn Abbey (1771), Kedleston (1760), Ingres Abbey in Kent (1771) and a large number for Somerset House in London beginning in 1778.
There is an entry in Charles Townley's personal account book which reads -
To Richd. Hayward sculptor remainder
in full for dining room chimney pd
dft. on Wrights 25 July £50-18s."
This is probably for the marble neo-classical fireplace which is now in the red drawing room. It is certainly very similar to a fireplace in the State boudoir at Kedleston. This similarity includes the use of the rather unusual inlaid marble columns.
Biog. Dict. Sculptors entry for HaywardBest remembered by art historians as a chronicler of British visitors to Rome and as a collector of sculptors’ sales catalogues, Hayward was also a successful sculptor with a diverse practice. He was christened at Bulkington,Warks, on 13 May 1725, the son of Richard and Mary Hayward from nearby Weston-in-Arden. He seems to have been apprenticed first to Christopher Horsnaile I, a relation by marriage, at whose house in St Andrew, Holborn, he was living c1740 (Masons’ Co Assistants, f4, 7). In June 1742 however he was apprenticed to Sir Henry Cheere for a full seven year term at the customary rate of £105.
Cheere’s workshop [ .. more]
Hayward appears quickly to have become a pivotal figure in Cheere’s workshop. Cheere’s accounts show payments of £1,901 made to Hayward between February 1744 and June 1747, though there is no information on the precise nature of Hayward’s work. Webb has suggested that he may have been running the workshop, and that workshop products such as the monument to William Pole, 1746, may confidently be attributed to Hayward rather than Cheere (2). In February 1748, before he finished his apprenticeship, Hayward, who was then still living in St Andrew, Holborn, made his will, which was witnessed by three members of the Horsnaile family (FRC PROB 11/1347/p279). The document reveals that he already owned estates in Weston-in-Arden and Bulkington, which he intended to leave to his sisters, Mary and Anne.
Unlike Cheere and most members of his workshop, Hayward played an active part in the affairs of the Masons’ Company after gaining his freedom in 1749. In 1752 he was in a position of authority as renter warden. In June 1753 he went to Rome, where he stayed until April 1754. Little is known of Hayward’s Rome years but his list of visitors to Italy, beginning with his own arrival and updated via contacts in Rome over the next 20 years, has become an indispensable source for historians of 18th-century artistic tourism. The connections Hayward made in Rome benefited his career: the English banker and dealer, Thomas Jenkins, wrote to the Earl of Dartmouth from Rome on 30 March 1755: ‘It is said here that your Lordship is about building a house at Westminster. If such a person as Mr. Hayward, a sculptor, should be recommended to your Lordship, I believe I may venture to say that he is a deserving young man; I knew him sometime here and he behaved well’ (HMC 1896, 170).
Like Cheere, he was involved in the Society of Arts, becoming a member in November 1757 and replacing Louis François Roubiliac on the committee after his death in 1762. He exhibited what appear to be relief tablets for chimneypieces at the Society of Artists exhibitions in 1761, 1764 and 1766 (60, 61, 62), and he supplied chimneypieces at the same period for Kedleston and to the Jacobite, William Burrell Massingberd at Ormesby (31, 32). He was also negotiating with Massingberd for a monument: in 1762 three designs were sent up to Ormesby with a scale of prices ranging from £28-£80, depending on the material selected. The designs, which were not executed, have a neo-classical simplicity which shows the influence of his Rome experience. Hayward appears to have had a secondary business as a dealer, for he supplied the antiquarian, Thomas Hollis, with a copy of Antichita di Roma, imported from Rome in 1764. Hayward apparently also brought other Italian goods and materialsl (46-8). Two figures by Hayward ‘after the antique’ were listed at Charles Jennens’s house in Great Ormond Street in Dodsley’s guide to London (26, 27).
Patrons [ .. more]
Jennens, the non-juring writer and collector, was a supportive patron. In 1764 Hayward carved a cenotaph to the scholar Edward Holdsworth for Jennens’s park at Gopsall, Leics (3). This work, executed in ‘fine statuary marble of Luna’, was noted in two accounts published during Hayward’s lifetime (Nichols 1795-1815, vol 4, 858; GM, 1791, pt 1, 305). It was placed in a temple surmounted by Roubiliac’s emblematic figure of Fides Christiana. Hayward would use a version of this figure of Religion more than a decade later on his monument to Samuel Phillipps (11). When Jennens died in 1773 it was Hayward who provided his monument, drawing on Roubiliac’s iconography for an ambitious composition in coloured marbles with a grieving female figure before a crumbling pyramid (10). Jennens was one of several patrons in the Midlands. Sir Roger Newdigate also commissioned extensively (37, 43, 56). A bill for £70 in the Newdigate archives relates to Hayward’s monument (again with a figure of Religion) to Elizabeth and Sophia Newdigate (13), and the sculptor also carved a remarkable gothic chimneypiece for the drawing room at Arbury (33). Letters about both commissions survive and suggest that there may have been two separate monuments to the Newdigate ladies.
In 1763 Hayward was listed in Mortimer’s Director as a ‘Statuary. Near Dover-Street, Piccadilly’ (Mortimer 1763, 13). His property was rated at £12 and his workshop remained at that address for 35 years. His neighbours included John Cheere and the Carters (Benjamin and Thomas II). It was around this time that Thomas Banks was recorded by Joseph Nollekens as ‘at Mr Hayward’s’ (Whitley 1930, 40), presumably as an assistant. Another workshop member was Peter Seguiér, who served his apprenticeship with Hayward. Though the rates on his property were modest, Hayward appears to have developed a good business, for he provided a succession of small monuments in Westminster Abbey (5, 6, 7, 12, 15, 17, 18). The most notable of these was to William Strode (12): it has a relief of the Weeping Dacia set into a segmental pediment, above an austere classical tablet and apron. The tablet is mounted on a slab of unusual ‘bianco e nero’ marble. Hayward was a regular buyer of marbles and other materials at sculptors’ auctions from the 1750s until the 1780s. To the lasting benefit of sculpture historians he preserved the catalogues of sales, which now form a valuable archive in the British Museum. His most notable purchase was almost half of Henry Cheere’s stock, auctioned when Cheere retired in 1770.
In 1772 John Norton, a London-based merchant from Virginia, was assigned the task of finding a suitable sculptor for a statue of the late Governor of the Province, Lord Botetourt, sponsored by the House of Burgesses (28). Norton, with the assistance of Botetourt’s nephew, the 5th Duke of Beaufort, fixed upon Hayward as the sculptor. Norton announced the decision to a relative in Yorktown, adding ‘he’s to be finished in 12 months completely with iron rails, packages &ca, and to be put on ship for £700’ (Mason 1937, 224). Hayward worked to schedule and the statue arrived in Virginia in May 1773. Apparently ‘very apprehensive’ about accidents befalling his work, Hayward sent his own mason John Hirst to America to set it up. It is the oldest surviving public statue in North America, and the figure, with classically-derived reliefs of Britannia and America on the base, was ‘universally admired’, according to one of the burgesses (Mason 1937, 332). Judging from Norton’s correspondence, its particular merit was its verisimilitude, achieved by reference to a wax medallion by Isaac Gosset.
Hayward worked with the architects James Paine, Henry Keene, Robert Adam and Sir William Chambers as a purveyor of chimneypieces and architectural sculpture. Under Chambers’s direction he supplied work in the 1770s and 1780s for Woburn Abbey, Ingress Abbey and Blenheim (39, 49, 53). In January 1774 the Duke of Marlborough wrote to Chambers that he wanted ‘much to have this fountain settled… you must let Hayward or one of his foremen meet you here and I’ll have the parts of the fountain put out ready for him to see’. This allusion is almost certainly to the famous Bernini fountain (53), which was set up by the 4th Duke in the park at Blenheim and later repaired and re-located by the 9th Duke in a place of honour on the terrace below the west front of the palace (Chambers’s Letters-Book, 41136, fol 1). Hayward does not appear to have been much involved with the setting up of the Royal Academy but Chambers employed him extensively on chimneypieces at Somerset House, paying him a total of £835 0s 3d for his work on the building (40-42). Among the effects itemised in Hayward's posthumous sale was a ‘large portfolio’ of designs by Chambers.
Hayward’s workshop appears to have expanded in the 1780s. His rates more than doubled to £33 in 1784, and after a few fluctuations, remained at £26 from 1787 until his death. He had attracted the patronage of the Carter-Thelwall family of Redbourne Hall, Lincs (14, 16, 50, 55) for whom he executed some innovative work including a relief of an oriental harbour on the monument to Roger Carter (16). Another innovative work was the large triptych monument to William Wyldbore (22). But on the whole, Hayward’s monuments of the 1780s, though always delicately carved and detailed, were relatively unambitious and repetitive. The memorials to Mary Milles and George Ogden (20, 24) have almost identical reliefs of a woman grieving over a sarcophagus above a tablet, set into a coloured marble surround with bowed sides. Numerous other works which follow this pattern, occasionally with a putto extinguishing a very long torch (as on the Holdsworth monument), can be seen all over the country and may well come from Hayward’s workshop. He reserved what are probably his finest works for his family church in Bulkington, advertising his skill both as a sculptor and as a marble merchant with a font, which carries the inscription, a ‘fragment of ancient numidian marble ... imported from Rome by Richard Hayward’. The bowl has reliefs of religious subjects, which are lightly handled and have been compared by Whinney to the pretty genre scenes of Francis Wheatley (57). Hayward’s retable relief of The Last Supper (58) is a more condensed composition with animated figures. In 1781 Hayward erected a monument in the church to his parents, with another Weeping Dacia crying over a ruined landscape, together with an inscription recording Hayward’s role as a benefactor, and the material, Carrara marble (21).
Death [ .. more]
He died in London on 11 August 1800, and his will was proved that September. His sister Mary had died in 1788, leaving Anne Hayward (now Debary) as his sole heir. She erected a monument to her brother and sister in Bulkington, with an epitaph identifying the donor, ‘the surviving sister of Richard and Mary Hayward (who) placed this marble as a memorial of the taste and genius of one, of the virtue and affection of both’. Since this is virtually identical to the Milles and Ogden monuments, it seems probable that it too came from the workshop.
Anne authorised a sale of her brother’s ‘marble chimneypieces, alto and basso-relievos, ornaments, paintings, books on architecture, and valuable stock of marble’ which took place in November at his premises ‘opposite the Old White Horse Cellar’ in Piccadilly. There were numerous lots of antique alabaster and marble as well as recently quarried specimens from Italy, Spain, Germany and Ireland. The catalogue also suggests that Hayward was a notable collector, for he owned paintings identified by the auctioneer as being by Wilson, Poussin, Heemskirk, Ruysdael, Correggio and Elsheimer. Hayward’s obituary described him as ‘a kind, intelligent, and warm friend, to many who will long deplore his loss’, and added of his work that his ‘performances in the line of his profession, dispersed throughout the kingdom, shew him to have been an admirable master of the old school’ (GM, pt 2, 1800, 909). Modern scholarship has tended to concur with this judgement, seeing Hayward as a relic of the mason-sculptor tradition in an age when sculpture was increasingly seeking recognition as a polite art. Lord has also pointed out that in his enthusiasm for Rome, his utilisation of objects and motifs from antiquity, and his possible influence on Thomas Banks, he can also be seen as a progenitor of the neoclassical taste.